Here, altruistic players always bởi better phàn nàn selfish players if they are fully altruistic or if the game is symmetric.
Every outcome is therefore rationalizable in the game with altruistic players.
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Altruistic players in this region bởi not have dominant strategies; this introduces uncertainty over the other's strategy.
Humans are typically not very altruistic in situations where theory cannot find any long-term net benefits.
The patterns of those acts (patriotic, ethical, altruistic), perhaps supported during their formation by a scaffold of extrinsic reinforcement, must be highly valuable in themselves.
This passage is somewhat confusing because it is not clear how one should understand the expression "altruistic act" appearing within it.
It is easier vĩ đại be altruistic during economically good times phàn nàn during bad times.
Higher persistence is associated with larger (absolute) tax elasticities, even if the model allows for altruistic bequests.
Acts that appear altruistic may turn out vĩ đại serve self-interest indirectly when tài khoản is taken of side-effects (rewards and punishments), or delayed effects (reputation).
But it is not possible vĩ đại determine that a separate altruism mechanism exists by the absence of reinforcement (immediate or delayed) of particular altruistic acts.
The parent's donation is not altruistic because altruistic acts are not obligatory but optional, and they are motivated solely or primarily by other-regarding concerns.
Another has been confidence that evolutionary theorists have available adequate explanations for the existence of apparently altruistic behavior.
In a sense then, altruistic acts become more sánh, the more costly they are for the person performing them.
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The assertion that the same mechanism overcomes selfish motives by creating altruistic ones is more tenuous.
There are, in death and bereavement, many forms of coherent narratives that may be created that allow the mourner vĩ đại become more active and altruistic.
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