Antral gastritis is the inflammation of the inner mucosal lining in the antral part of the stomach.
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Antrum means the lower portion of the stomach.
This mucus-secreting protective layer in the inner side of the stomach wall prevents the stomach wall from corrosive acid, helping in our digestion process. When this protective layer is weakened or damaged due to tướng inflammation of gastric mucosa, it is gastritis.
What are the different types and causes of Antral Gastritis?
Acute gastritis (often Erosive or Haemorrhagic gastritis)
Here, due to tướng inflammation, gastric mucosal erosion happens and is also accompanied by bleeding.
The different causes include,
- Chemical/drug-induced – mainly pain killer or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroid-induced (seen in about 50% of cases)
- Corrosives – acid, alkali
- Alcohol-induced (seen in 20% of GI bleeding)
- Severe stress secondary to tướng past surgery, trauma, CVA, long bed-ridden conditions
- Portal hypertension with gastropathy, bile reflux
- Viral infection lượt thích Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in AIDS.
Chronic non–erosive gastritis
Here inflammation of the gastric mucosal layer happens without erosion. This may present with chronic gastritis too.
- Type A gastritis – This is an autoimmune gastritis involving fundal glands leading to tướng Achlorhydria and Vi-Ta-Min B12 non absorption.
- Type B gastritis or Chronic Helicobacter Pylori gastritis – The causative agent is H Pylori, a gram negative bacteria found in the gastric submucosal layer. The mechanism of injury is not clear, but frequent infection may cause chronic inflammatory changes and may culminate into complete atrophic gastritis. Sometimes, there may be metaplasia of gastric epithelium with 4–6 fold rise in incidence of Adenocarcinoma.
This H pylori infection may give rise to tướng peptic ulcers.
- Specific gastritis – This is caused due to tướng result of any other specific disease lượt thích viral infection, granulomatous inflammation lượt thích Tuberculosis (TB), Crohn’s etc.
What are the presentations of Antral Gastritis?
The presentations of gastritis are listed below:
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The primary presentation of antral gastritis is a burning sensation in the epigastric area (upper mid-abdomen area).
- Upper abdominal pain, mainly in epigastrium
- Bloated distended abdomen
- Maybe a stomach ulcer
- Nausea and vomiting, etc.
- In severe cases, may be bleeding, that is, hematemesis and melena in GI ulcer.
What are the tests required for diagnosing Antral Gastritis?
The following tests are performed for diagnosing Antral Gastritis,
- Blood examination may show Anaemia in chronic bleeding ulcer cases
- Key investigation is Upper GI endoscopy plus/minus biopsy for H Pylori
- Urea breath test
- USG abdomen, if associated with biliary pathology
What are the possible complications of Antral Gastritis?
The possible complications of Antral Gastritis, if not treated properly, include,
- H Pylori can cause stomach ulcers that can bleed, leading to tướng Anaemia.
- Autoimmune gastritis induced Vi-Ta-Min B12 malabsorption can lead to tướng Pernicious anaemia.
- Chances of occurrence of Gastric cancer.
What are the treatments for Antral Gastritis?
The treatment is based on two aspects,
- Diet and lifestyle changes and
- Specific medications
The treatment is based on two aspects,
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What are the diet/lifestyle advices for antral gastritis?
The diet/lifestyle advices for Antral Gastritis includes:
- Avoid spicy and hot foods and long time fasting.
- Eat small frequent meals. In the diet, lactose or gluten is to tướng be avoided.
- Also, avoid fried and acidic foods,
- Relaxation exercises to tướng de-stress are very important.
- Avoid excess tea/coffee.
What are the different types of medicines used?
Different medications for Antral Gastritis includes:
- Antacids may be taken to tướng neutralize preformed acid.
- H2 blockers (Ranitidine, Cimetidine) and PPI (Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, Esomeprazole, etc.) to tướng stop further acid production.
- NSAID induced gastritis may be treated with Sucralfate.
- Anti H Pylori kit with triple drugs like PPI/Metronidazone/Clarithromycin or amoxycillin to tướng be used as per doctor’s advice.
- Vitamin B12 to tướng be taken in malabsorption in gastritis.
Thus, the symptoms of Antral Gastritis may be mild and may also be severe if untreated. It is really important to tướng consult a doctor, even in case of mild symptoms, for proper dietary and medicinal advice. If any other background disease is present, that needs to tướng be examined and treated accordingly.