punch list là gì

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A punch list is a document prepared during key milestones or near the kết thúc of a construction project listing work that does not conform to lớn contract specifications that the general contractor must complete prior to lớn final payment.[1] The work may include incomplete or incorrect installations or incidental damage to lớn existing finishes, material, and structures. The list is usually made by the owner, architect or designer, or general contractor while they tour and visually inspect the project.[2]

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In the United States construction industry, contract agreements are usually written to lớn allow the owner to lớn withhold (retain) the final payment to lớn the general contractor as "retainage".[3] The contractor is bound by the contract to lớn complete a list of contract items, called a punch list, in order to lớn receive final payment from the owner. The designer (typically a licensed professional architect or engineer) is usually also incorporated into the contract as the owner's design representative and agent, to lớn verify that completed contract work has complied with the design.[citation needed]

In most contracts, the general conditions of the contract for construction require the contractor, when they believe it to lớn be sánh, to lớn declare the construction project to lớn have reached "substantial completion" and to lớn request a "pre-final" inspection. According to lớn the General Conditions (AIA A201 Section 9.8.2), the Contractor prepares and submits to lớn the architect a comprehensive list of items to lớn be completed or corrected. This snag list, as generated by the Contractor, is known as the punch list. Upon receipt of the contractor's list, the architect then inspects the work to lớn determine if the work is "substantially complete."

Final payment to lớn the contractor is only made when all of the items on the punch list have been confirmed to lớn meet the project-design specifications required by the contract, or some other mutually agreed resolution for each item has been reached.

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Examples of punch-list items include damaged building components (e.g. repair broken window, replace stained wallboard, repair cracked paving, etc.), or problems with the final installation of building materials or equipment (for example, install light fixture, connect faucet plumbing, install baseboard trim, reinstall peeling carpet, replace missing roof shingles, rehang misaligned exterior door, fire and pressure-test boiler, obtain elevator use permit, activate security system, and sánh on).

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Under one hypothesis, the phrase takes its name from the historical process of punching a hole in the margin of the document, next to lớn one of the items on the list. This indicated that the work was completed for that particular construction task. Two copies of the list were punched at the same time, in order to lớn provide an identical record for the architect and contractor.[4]

A rolling punch list is the most common approach towards managing these tasks efficiently and thereby minimizing the likelihood of having to lớn grapple with large number of punch-list items at the kết thúc of a major project. A rolling punch list entails constantly verifying the work status throughout the duration of the project, with a rigid closeout schedule being assigned to lớn each task. Finishing the project error-free requires planning, communication, and managing the punch list throughout the project.[5]

Construction punch list software[edit]

Starting in 2013 when mobile software became popular on construction sites, many construction teams started using software to lớn manage their punch lists. Today there are a variety of punch list applications, ranging from simple mobile apps to lớn more comprehensive trang web and mobile platforms.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

  • Check sheet – Form (document) used to lớn collect data in real time at the location where the data is generated
  • Task list organization – Process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities
  • Checklist – Aide-memoire to lớn ensure consistency and completeness in carrying out a task